Friday, September 27, 2019

Reliable Partner

As my article Reliable Partner appeared in the Edit Page of The Pioneer, President Jacques Chirac, the third President of the French Republic, passed away.
He leaves a great vacuum on the French political scene.
I posting here a few lines that I wrote several years ago on the Indo-French Strategic Partnership, the first of this kind, initiated by President Chirac and Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
It remains a model for other partnerships.
Merci President Chirac and Prime Minister Vajpayee for this!

Here is old article on the Indo-French Relations
The most interesting aspect of the 90’s was the tremendous boost in bilateral relations given by the visits of President Chirac in January 1998 and Prime Minister Vajpayee’s trip to Paris later in the year.
The most striking feature was the setting up of a framework for a strategic partnership.
Before reaching Delhi, the French President had declared that he was keen on an “ambitious partnership”. Using a de Gaulle-like language, Jacques Chirac saluted India, “a nation which has affirmed its personality on the world stage”. He said that he had come to show that “France wanted to accompany India in its potent march [towards the future].”
Inaugurating a Seminar in Vigyan Bhavan, the French President elaborated on the nuclear deal. Reminding that “certain conditions are to be met ”, he however suggested to: “reflect, together with those of our partners involved, on the ways to reconcile our common will to cooperate and the necessary respect for the rules the international community has set itself”.
Nine years later, a similar language could be used by President Sarkozy when he visits Delhi in January 2008.
Chirac’s words were not mere political niceties.
When India conducted its nuclear tests in Pokhran in May, France was one of the few countries which did not condemned Delhi (or impose sanction). This was greatly appreciated in Delhi and when Prime Minister Vajpayee returned Chirac’s visit in October, the new strategic dialogue could take its first concrete steps. 
These events set in motion a closer collaboration.
From the friendship mentioned by de Gaulle, the relation had become a partnership.
By putting proper structures in place, the dialogue was institutionalized:
  •  A Strategic Dialogue at the level of National Security Advisors provides both sides an opportunity to review the evolution of the overall global security situation and emerging challenges in various parts of the world (17 rounds have been held so far).
  •  A High Level Committee for Defence at the level of Defence Secretaries, works through its three specialized sub-committees, dealing with issues related to defence cooperation.
  • A Joint Working Group on Terrorism has been established to cooperate in the fight against terrorism
  •  Annual consultations between the two foreign ministries are held at the level of Foreign Secretaries.
  • A Joint Committee for Economic and Technical Cooperation at the level of Ministers of Commerce
The bilateral relations have benefited in several ways:
  •      Increase in the number of high-level civilian and defence personnel visits. Just a glimpse at the website of the French Embassy in India  will show the drastic improvement in this field. Mr. Bernard Kouchner, the French Foreign Minister visited Delhi on December 20 and 21. The regular reciprocal visits of a large number of senior serving defence officers have enabled a deeper sharing of views and experience.
  •      Defence Personnel Exchanges
Exchanges have not been too successful so far. According to General Alain Lamballe (Retd), a former military attaché and expert in the Indo-French relations: “Both nations have not sufficiently explored the possibility to send young officers for training. It is the only guarantee to have a good reciprocal knowledge in the long term. India hesitates to put its officers in contact with foreigners, fearing compromises. ” If trust between the armed forces of the two countries increases, one can hope that there will be an improvement in this field.
  •      Joint Naval Exercises
In 2006, the Indian Navy called these exercises: “A Significant Indicator”. Explaining the background of the successful Varuna joint naval exercises, the Indian Ministry of Defence said: “In recent times the Indian Nary laid great emphasis on enhancing bilateral ties and interoperability with navies of developed countries through professional and operational interactions.” Varuna 07, a sea and air military exercise was held from the September 11 to 19, 2007, off the Somali coasts and in the Gulf of Aden in continuation of the exercises organized in March and April 2006 off the coast of Goa. The French contribution was then centered on the aircraft carrier Charles De Gaulle.
  •      Aerial Exercises
From 12 to 23 February 2007, the French and Indian Air Forces carried out the third edition of the Garuda series of air force exercises. Organized for the second time in India, this year exercise took place at Kalaikunda Air Force Station. The French Air Force participated with one Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) aircraft, four Mirage 2000-D Air-to-Ground fighters and four Mirage 2000-5 Air-Defence fighters. It was the first time that a French AWACS Aircraft came to India.
  •      Joint Research and Development
One of the many examples which could be given is the Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL), a missile research laboratory under the Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO) and the leading European company, MBDA Missile Systems, planning to jointly develop a new-generation low-level, quick-reaction missile (LLQRM). The $500 million project is aimed at developing the 35-kilometer Maitri quick-reaction missile, a blend of the French Mica and DRDO Trishul. MBDA will develop an active homing head, thrust-vector controls and missiles. DRDL will handle software, command-and-control, and integration.
Though President Chirac’s visit to India in February 2006 was marred by the Clémenceau controversy, it further cemented the close relations between the two nations. On the eve of the visit, France’s ambassador Dominique Girard had summed up the relations: “Our two nations now more than ever before have a major responsibility in relation to the rest of the international community and the promotion of peace and development. The strategic partnership that they have forged with one another must be based on sound and coordinated defence systems”.

Here is my Pioneer's article on 'Reliable Partners'

France has had a long relation with India, particularly in the defence sector. One area where India can be of great help to it pertains to the transport sector

Remember the months before the legislative elections, L’Affaire Rafale was everyday in the news, thanks to the then leader of Opposition, who alleged hanky-panky in the intergovernmental deal signed between India and France for acquiring 36 off-the-shelf Rafale multi-role fighter planes.
The day the campaign was over, no line of negative writing has appeared in the media. Of course, l’Affaire was just an electoral plank, with no connection to the reality of the deal itself.
Dassault Aviation is back in the media; this time for the better reasons; one newspaper titles: “Deadly French fighter planes to arrive soon”.
It has been a long journey since the first Request for Information for 126 Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircrafts …in 2001.
Five years ago, the then French Defence Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian had come to India on a two-day visit meet. He was trying to resurrect the stagnating deal with his Indian counterpart Manohar Parrikar.
In an interview for The Pioneer, he told me:”France and India share a wide range of common interests. Our strategic partnership, developing since 1998, when the BJP was in power, includes defence and security.”
Regarding the Rafales, he then observed: “The negotiations are proceeding well. For a project of this scale and such complexity, which brings the transfer of numerous know-hows to several industrial stakeholders of India, the pace is comparable to that of other negotiations. Both our Governments share the will to conclude it and this is, of course, essential.”
But it was far from being done.
In fact it took two more years and the will of the Indian Prime Minister to sign a Government to Government agreement for 36 planes.
On October 8, Defence Minister Rajnath Singh will finally receive the first plane at Dassault’s factory, in Merignac near Bordeaux. The first four planes should arrive in India in May 2020; the other jets will then follow in quick succession. What a protracted, painful road!
The Indian Air Force (IAF) has already started training 24 pilots in three different batches to fly the Indian custom-made combat aircrafts, which will be deployed (one squadron each) at Ambala airbase in Haryana and Hashimara in Bengal.
As a new Chief of Air Staff (CAS) was nominated, the Indian Air Force (IAF) received ‘acceptance’ for its first Rafale in Merignac, where the planes are assembled. On the tail of India’s new Rafale is painted ‘RB-01’, standing for Air Marshal RKS Bhadauria, who will take over as new CAS on October 1 and whose role was pivotal in negotiating the final deal between India and France. The IAF Deputy Chief, Air Marshal VR Chaudhary had just flown the Indian jet, which will be equipped with the latest gadgets, in particular Meteor missiles, SCALP ground attack missiles and many other equipment which should remain top-secret.
This comes at a time when India faced a difficult time on the international scene, with two of her neighbours clubbing their forces to internationalize the Kashmir issue. China distastefully decided to support Pakistan’s objections to the abrogation of Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, which has surprised many. India undoubtedly needs all her energies, resources and friends to face these two separate fronts.
Incidentally, France was the first country to torpedo the Chinese initiative to get a statement on the abrogation of Article 370 from the Security Council; further on August 21, Jean-Yves Le Drian, now Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs phoned his Pakistan counterpart Shah Mahmood Qureshi and told him that for France, Kashmir was a bilateral issue between India and Pakistan. Le Drian pleaded for restraint, de-escalation and easing the situation, the message was clear.
France has a long relation with India particularly in the domain of defence.
In the early 1950s’ India had purchased 71 Ouragans (known in India as Toofanis) from the same Dassault company; HS Malik, India's Ambassador to France wrote to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in October 1953: “All of us in the Embassy who have been working on the implantation of the contract with the Defence Ministry here for the supply of Ouragan aircraft were greatly relieved and delighted when we got the news that our four pilots with the four Ouragans had reached Palam safely.” He continued: “I venture to bring to your notice the wonderful cooperation that we have received both from the French officers of the Ministry of Defence, from the Cabinet Minister downwards, and from the French industry.”
Since then, India and France remain reliable friends.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi was Macron’s special invitee at the G7 meet in Biarritz in South France. The two leaders met before and the joint statement noted that the “traditional relationship is enduring, trustworthy, like-minded, and all-encompassing. India-France relations are marked by mutual trust between two strategic partners who have always stood by each other.”
Modi's visit further strengthened the strategic ties in crucial sectors such as defence, nuclear energy and maritime security, and deepen the bilateral cooperation to check flow of funds for terror activities. The collaboration with France in the Indian Ocean is particularly noteworthy.
Apart from defence and new fields in IT, cooperation has developed in key areas such as nuclear energy, space International Solar Alliance, and joint development projects.
Symptomatic of the close relations, India and France finalized a closer cooperation in digital and cyber security domain: “the two leaders have adopted a cybersecurity and digital technology road map aimed at expanding Indo-French bilateral cooperation, particularly in the strategic sectors of high performance computing and Artificial Intelligence, with the target of bringing our start-up ecosystems closer to each other,” said the joint statement.
Both nations have been left far behind by China and it is high time that India collaborates with friendly countries in this domain, which will determine the superpowers of tomorrow. In a world in turmoil, France has been and indeed is an enduring partner for India.
Tailpiece: one domain where India could help France is transport security. On the first day of a recent visit to France, I was robbed of my wallet with all my cash, in the Paris metro; it is a fact that the Delhi metro is far safer than Paris’. Indian engineers should advise their French counterparts how to have a clean and secure transport system.
The number of other avenues in bilateral collaborations is unlimited, the purchase of 36 new aircrafts is already rumoured.

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